1. MAGNITUDE : 9.5
Chile; 12 May 1960
source : http://1.usa.gov/iJDMy
Casualties : Approx. 1,655
Injuries : 3,000
Homeless : 2 Million
Cost of Damage : US$550M
Affected Countries due to Tsunami:
Japan - 138 deaths and US$50M damage
Philippines - 32 dead and missing
USA West Coast - 61 deaths (Hawaii) and US$500,000 damage
Tsunamis caused 61 deaths and severe damage in Hawaii, mostly at Hilo, where the runup height reached 10.6 m (35 ft). Waves as high as 5.5 m (18 ft) struck northern Honshu about 1 day after the quake, where it destroyed more than 1600 homes and left 185 people dead or missing. Another 32 people were dead or missing in the Philippines after the tsunami hit those islands. Damage also occurred on Easter Island, in the Samoa Islands and in California. One to 1.5 m (3-5 ft) of subsidence occurred along the Chilean coast from the south end of the Arauco Peninsula to Quellon on Chiloe Island. As much of 3 m (10 ft) of uplift occurred on Isla Guafo. Many landslides occurred in the Chilean Lake District from Lago Villarica to Lago Todos los Santos.
|The calculated travel times (in hours) are |
shown for the tsunami produced
by the 1960 Chile, earthquake.
source : http://1.usa.gov/fTYSXe
2. MAGNITUDE : 9.2
Prince William Sound, Alaska; 12 May 1960
Casualties : 128 deaths (earthquake 15, tsunami 113)
Cost of Damage : US$311M
Affected Countries due to Tsunami: USA West Coast - 15 deaths
This great earthquake and ensuing tsunami took 128 lives (tsunami 113, earthquake 15), and caused about $311 million in property loss. Earthquake effects were heavy in many towns, including Anchorage, Chitina, Glennallen, Homer, Hope, Kasilof, Kenai, Kodiak, Moose Pass, Portage, Seldovia, Seward, Sterling, Valdez, Wasilla, and Whittier.
Anchorage, about 120 kilometers northwest of the epicenter, sustained the most severe damage to property. About 30 blocks of dwellings and commercial buildings were damaged or destroyed in the downtown area. The J.C. Penny Company building was damaged beyond repair; the Four Seasons apartment building, a new six-story structure, collapsed; and many other multistory buildings were damaged heavily. The schools in Anchorage were almost devastated. The Government Hill Grade School, sitting astride a huge landslide, was almost a total loss. Anchorage High School and Denali Grade School were damaged severely. Duration of the shock was estimated at 3 minutes.
|Abridged from Seismicity of the United States, 1568-1989 (Revised), by Carl W. Stover and Jerry L. Coffman, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527, United States Government Printing Office, Washington: 1993.|
source : http://1.usa.gov/f1PsJP
|source : http://1.usa.gov/eQW2OV|
The devastating earthquake of 26 December 2004 occurred as thrust-faulting on the interface of the India plate and the Burma plate. In a period of minutes, the faulting released elastic strains that had accumulated for centuries from ongoing subduction of the India plate beneath the overriding Burma plate.
In a broad sense, the India and Australian plates move toward the north- northeast with respect to the interior of the Eurasia plate with velocities of about 60 mm/y in the region of the earthquake. In the region of northern Sumatra and the Nicobar Islands, most of the relative motion of India/Australia and the Eurasia plate is accommodated at the Sunda trench and within several hundred kilometers to the east of the Sunda trench, on the boundaries of the Burma plate. The direction in which India/Australia converges toward Eurasia is oblique to the trend of the Sunda trench. The oblique motion is partitioned into thrust-faulting and strike-slip faulting. The thrust faulting occurs on the interface between the India plate and the western margin of the Burma plate and involves slip directed at a large angle to the orientation of the trench. The strike-slip faulting occurs on the eastern boundary of the Burma plate and involves slip directed approximately parallel to the trench. The 26 December main shock occurred as the result of thrust faulting on the western Burma-plate boundary, but many strike-slip faulting aftershocks occurred on the eastern plate boundary.
|source : http://1.usa.gov/h5LIcW|
Currently available models of the 26 December main-shock fault displacement differ in many interesting details, but are consistent in implying that fault- rupture propagated to the northwest from the epicenter and that substantial fault-rupture occurred hundreds of kilometers northwest of the epicenter. The data upon which the modeling is based do not permit confident resolution of the extent of rupture beyond about 500 km northwest of the main-shock epicenter. The width of the earthquake rupture, measured perpendicular to the Sunda trench, is estimated to have been about 150 kilometers and the maximum displacement on the fault plane about 20 meters. The sea floor overlying the thrust fault would have been uplifted by several meters as a result of the earthquake.
The zone of aftershocks to the 26 December earthquake is over 1300 km long. Because aftershocks occur on and very near the fault-planes of main shocks, the length of the aftershock zone suggests that main-shock fault-rupture may have extended north of the epicenter by an amount significantly larger than 500 km. However, a great earthquake may also trigger earthquake activity on faults that are distinct from the main-shock fault plane and separated from it by tens or even hundreds of kilometers. We will not know until further analysis how much of the 26 December aftershock zone may correspond to activity in the immediate vicinity of the main-shock rupture, and how much may correspond to activity remote from the main-shock rupture.
4. MAGNITUDE : 9.0
Near the East Coast of Honshu, Japan; 11 March 2011
Casualties : estimated 10,000+
The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011, which occurred near the northeast coast of Honshu, Japan, resulted from thrust faulting on or near the subduction zone plate boundary between the Pacific and North America plates. At the latitude of this earthquake, the Pacific plate moves approximately westwards with respect to the North America plate at a rate of 83 mm/yr, and begins its westward descent beneath Japan at the Japan Trench. Note that some authors divide this region into several microplates that together define the relative motions between the larger Pacific, North America and Eurasia plates; these include the Okhotsk and Amur microplates that are respectively part of North America and Eurasia.
|Tsunami Wave Height|
source : http://bit.ly/fWqENd
5. MAGNITUDE : 9.0
Kamchatka; 04 November 1952
Casualties : 0 death
Damage : US$800,000 - US$1M
|source : http://1.usa.gov/eb8UQQ|
|Aerial view of Kaika Bay near Haleiwa on the north shore of Oahu shows the fourth wave climbing up beach toward the beach houses and shows the extent of inundation from previous waves. Photograph Credit: George Curtis.|
source : http://bit.ly/i0ccvB